(Ⅰ) Principles and Policies
The year of 2000, at the turn of the new century, was a key year for China's tourism industry to inherit the past and usher in the future. The principles and policies put forward in the year played a key and guiding role in development of the tourism industry, which were manifested in the following fields:
1. Conscientiously summing up the experiences in development of the tourism over the past 20 years. At the national tourism working conference held in the beginning of the year, various departments of the tourism industry conscientiously summed up experiences, pointing out that the China's tourism industry had accumulated some experiences, which were the main reasons why the tourism industry made splendid achievements:
(1) It is imperative to take Deng Xiaoping's theories and his economic thinking on tourism as guidance;
(2) It is imperative to develop the road of tourism with Chinese characteristics based on proceeding from the country's actual conditions and absorbing international experiences;
(3) It is imperative to persist in reform and opening in the whole process of developing tourism industry;
(4) It is imperative to persist in development of tourism as economic industries;
(5) It is imperative to stick to the tourism development strategy with the guidance of the government as a leading factor;
(6) It is imperative to persist in the direction of development featuring by large production, large market and large tourism;
(7) It is imperative to stick to the principle of sustainable development;
(8) It is imperative to stick to the principle of governing tourism according to law. These precious experiences are of important significance for guidance.
2. China's tourism industry has worked out a long-term plan for development prospects for following 20 years. Based on the historical leaping over from a country with only rich tourist resources to an important tourist country in Asia over the past 20 years, China will continue to develop itself from an important tourist country in Asia to the one in the world after another 20 years of efforts.
3. "Deng Xiaoping on Tourism" published. Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the general designer of China's reform and opening drive, paid great attention to development of tourism in his lifetime. The book, jointly compiled by Party Literature Research Center of the CPC Central Committee and CNTA contains a series of important speeches made by Deng Xiaoping on development of tourism industry. The publication of the book is of milestone significance, showing the principles for further development of tourism and realization of the goal of becoming one of top tourist countries in the world. It is also a programmatic document for development of tourism in the future.
4. The State continued to foster tourism as a new economic growth point, with holiday tourism developing vigorously and going to the standard. The State Council and various related departments paid great attention and gave support to the development of tourism. In 1999, the State Council issued the "Methods for Having Days Off for Annual Festivals and Commemoration Days Throughout the Country", which promoted the formation of three gold tourism weeks centering around National Day, May Day and Spring Festival. The National Holiday Tourism Ministry-Commission for Coordination Meeting System was founded. It is composed of 14 state ministries and commission, including CNTA, the State Development Planning Commission, the State Economic and Trade Commission, the Ministry of Public Security, etc. The Coordination Meeting Office (or called "National Holiday Office") is located in building of CNTA. The establishment of the coordination meeting has played a positive role in effectively guiding the tourists' demands for tourism, and ensuring the supply and demand for holiday tourism.
5. New achievements were made after the tourism industry widened its door to the outside world. In face of the possible new situation after China enters WTO, CNTA took active measures to improve its internal quality of the trade, while enhancing its competitiveness at international markets. Efforts were also made to check up all rules and regulations on tourism in order to lay a solid foundation for China's tourism industry linking with international market. In the field of importing foreign capital, CNTA, together with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, gave active guidance to the experiments in running travel agencies using foreign capital. By the end of 2000, there were 8 foreign-funded travel agencies throughout the country, an increase of 5 over last year. In addition, proceeding from the demands of the Chinese citizens for outbound tours, based on the principle of equality and mutual benefits, CNTA also actively negotiated with related countries on expansion of the number and scale of foreign countries as outbound tour destinations for the Chinese citizens at their own expenses. It also allowed the all-round and formal outbound tourist service to the tour destination countries, where outbound tourism markets have been successfully operated. By the end of last year, the number of countries as tour destination for the Chinese Citizens at their own expenses reached 15.
6. Studying and pushing forward new fields. CNTA has started a solid step in boosting tourism through science and technology, with focus on the construction of E-business projects in tourism industry, known as "Gold Tour Project". Based on the existing computer network, new input were made, thus forming a new E-business network for tourism. At the same time, CNTA also organized forces to conduct follow-up survey on new tourist programs such as "Flexi-Holiday Vacation" and "Holiday Vacation with Salary Paid" which had produced influence on domestic tourist markets.
7. Various localities took measures encouraging and promoting the development of tourism industry. Policy-related documents on promotion of the development of tourism were issued by government of some provinces and major tourist cities. Besides, some provinces and cities, proceeding from local conditions, introduced innovative activities to promote the development of tourism.
(Ⅱ) Legal System for Tourism
Last year, 2000, was a year in which we continued to improve the legal system for tourism. A large number of rules, regulations and documents related to tourism were put forward throughout the country, which ensured the healthy development of tourism industry.
1. CNTA and related departments worked out regulations and documents for standardizing the management of tourism. In the field of strengthening macro-management, in combination of mapping out the 10th Five-Year Plan, CNTA issued the "Managerial Methods for Planning Tourism Development" in the form of No.12 Decree, and the "Temporary Methods for Qualification Authentication on Design Units for Tourism Planning" in its No.13 Decree.
Mapping Out Tourism Development Program for the 10th Five-Year Plan to adjust governmental functions and strengthen the management of tourism, also working out methods in evaluation of "star-rated hotels" and creation of "top tourist cities." These methods are stipulated in the "Notice on Further Accelerating the Work in Assessment of Star Rates of Hotels" and the "Temporary methods for Management of the Work on Creation of Chinese Top Tourist Cities" issued by CNTA. To strengthen the construction of ethic and cultural civilization in the whole tourism industry, the Civilization Office of the CPC Central Committee, CNTA and the related ministries jointly published the document entitled "Notice on Resolutely Curbing the Feudal and Superstition Activities in Scenic and Tourist Areas."
2. Legislation work on tourism was conducted in various localities like a ranging fire. Some provinces that did not publish their local rules and regulation on tourism in the past have worked out their local regulations on management of tourism. The publication of these local rules and regulations was the result after a fairly long period of survey and feasible studies. These regulations have made breakthroughs in measures for encouraging and ensuring the development of tourism, and are suitable for local conditions. By the end of 2000, 23 local documents concerning stipulations on tourism had published throughout the country. Take Hunan Province for example, proceeding from its actual conditions, some revisions and supplements were made to original regulations, making them more comprehensive in contents and practical in enforcement. Based on the "Regulations on Management of Guides", many provinces also worked out local detailed regulations on management of guides in scenic areas (spots).