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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, established in 1947 as the first Chinese ethnic groups' autonomous region, is located in China's northern borderline, and occupies 1,180,000 square kilometers. Its capital is Hohhot, which means "the Green City" in Mongolian, and which has been designated as one of the state-listed production bases for ethnic groups special necessities. The Inner Mongolian Plateau has richly endowed grasslands. It is one of China's largest pastoral areas. The Mongolian came upon the world's historical stage in the 13th century, and their cultural heritage was colorful and splendid.

Inner Mongolia stretches along China's northern border with the Mongolian People's Republic and the Soviet Union, and covers an oblong area of over 1.28 million square kilometers, or one eighth of the country's total. Of all the Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, it is the third largest after Xinjiang and Tibet. Its population is about 23 millions. Its capital city is Hurhut.

Inner Mongolia is dominated by a temperate continental monsoon climate. It has four distinct seasons because of its distance from sea, its high terrain and obstruction of mountains. It has long and cold winters while summer is short but warm. Known as the "arctic in china". the temperature's record low is -50*c. It is windy in all seasons, especially in spring.

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Five-Pagoda Temple

Jin-Gang-Zuo-She-Li Pagodas, which is popularly called Five-Pagoda Temple, is situated in the Wutasi-hou Street, Yuquan District, Hohhot. The construction of the temple began in the 5th year of the reign of the Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty. The Pagoda is 16.5 meters high and looks like a Buddha's Warrior Attendant's seat, with a base under it and five exquisite pagodas on the base. As more than 1560 relief sculptures of Buddha are engraved on the five pagodas, the temple enjoys the reputation of being "a 10000-Buddha Tower". In addition, there are images of Bodhisattva, the four Devarajas, Buddhist Saint, Heavenly Ladies, holy birds and animal, bodhi trees and the engraved scriptures in Mongolian, Tibetan and Sanskrit on the wall of the pagodas. On the wall facing the temple there are 3 marble relief sculptures, including a planisphere marked with Mongolian inscriptions. The pagodas are not only peculiar buildings, but also a huge exquisite carving.

Genghis Khan's Mausoleum

Genghis Khan's Mausoleum lies 30 kilometers south of Yijinhuoluo Qi (similar to county), 185 kilometers from Baotou.

Genghis Khan, also called Yuantaizu (the First Emperor of Yuan dynasty), whose true name is Tiemuzhen, had been the leader of Mongolia nationality. During the period from the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 20th century, he unified different tribes of Mongolia to one country: Mengguhan Country.

Located on Gande'er'ao altitude, with a length of 15 kilometers, width of 30 kilometers and area of 225 square kilometers, the mausoleum is made up of four magnificent palaces in the shape of Mongolian yurts, which respectively are the main palace, the east palace, the west palace and the back palace, and the four palaces are connected each other. With rounded roofs and glazed tiles inlayed golden eaves, they are very glorious and imposing.

The 26 meters high main palace, with a huge sculpture of Genghis Khan in the middle of it, is the center for fete. After the ceremony of sacrificing, sports activity such as toxophily, horse race, and wrestling will be held.

The back palace contains Genghis Khan's tomb, which is covered by with yellow satin.

The east palace lays coffins of Genghis Khan's wife and his fourth son Tuolei. The west palace is used as an exhibition hall, with some relics of Genghis Khan, such as spear, sword, saddle etc.

Before death, Genghis Khan left testament that his death must be kept secret, in order to trick Xixia into surrendering to Mongolian. According to the consuetude of Mongolian, nobles should be buried under ground after death. The surface of Genghis Khan's tomb was trod by thousands of horses to make it smooth; then trees were planted on the land above the tomb, and the second year, green grass grew flourishing there. So no one knows the exact place where Genghis Khan was buried from then on.

Now, memorial ceremony for Genghis khan is held for four times each year and March 21st of the lunar calendar is the traditional date to hold the memorial ceremony.


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